Waste, with all its types (e.g., municipal solid waste and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE; or e-waste) is a pressing sustainability issue worldwide and especially in developing countries. It is a concern in several developing countries due to lack of regulations and waste management standards and proper practices. The improper methods of waste in developing countries include, e.g., uncontrol dumping (uncontrolled landfilling), Open dumping, open burning, and informal recycling. All pose significant impacts on both public health and environment. There are other issues associated with the waste issue in developing countries such as the social and negative impacts. Other issues associated with waste management at a global level might include increasing generated amounts, resource utilization, the hazardous content (e.g., e-waste), international trading, illegal dumping, social acceptability, and the economic burden. Therefore, waste management is a complex sustainability issue due to the multiple elements that bear on its management.
Waste management can be viewed as an indicator of sustainable development for countries and societies. It can also be a practice on how societies can transition to sustainable ones. Several valuable resources of waste can be put back into the supply chain such as materials and metals. Proper handling of waste can also save resources, including metals and energy. Waste can also bring forth energy and waste management schemes can be optimized to generate revenues and business opportunities.
My research work on waste management so far focused on developing countries to contribute to developing sustainable waste management systems and to advancing these systems in those countries to achieve environmental impact mitigation, economic optimization, social acceptability and to reduce health impacts. My research projects centered on both municipal and e-waste, aiming to take on several topics of each waste type.
Relevant publications are outlined below:
- IKHLAYEL, M. 2016. Differences of methods to estimate generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment for developing countries: Jordan as a case study. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 108, 134-139.
- IKHLAYEL, M. 2017. Environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for E-waste management. Waste Management, 68, 458-474.
- IKHLAYEL, M. 2018. Development of management systems for sustainable municipal solid waste in developing countries: a systematic life cycle thinking approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 180, 571-586.
- IKHLAYEL, M. 2018. Indicators for establishing and assessing waste management systems in developing countries: A holistic approach to sustainability and business opportunities. Business Strategy & Development.
- IKHLAYEL, M. 2018. An integrated approach to establish e-waste management systems for developing countries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 170, 119-130.
- IKHLAYEL, M., HIGANO, Y., YABAR, H. & MIZUNOYA, T. 2016. Introducing an Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management System: Assessment in Jordan. Journal of Sustainable Development, 9, 43.
- IKHLAYEL, M. & NGUYEN, L. H. 2017. Integrated Approaches to Water Resource and Solid Waste Management for Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development, 25, 467-481.